Normal Saline Solution Sodium Chloride Injection

0.9% Sodium Chloride Injection B.P.

(Sodium Chloride 0.9% w/v] (Normal Saline)

Therapeutic Class (Normal Saline Solution Sodium Chloride Injection)

Isotonic crystalloid salt solution


Description and Composition (Normal Saline Solution Sodium Chloride Injection)

A clear, colorless, sterile solution each 25 ml. of which contains:
  • Sodium Chloride B.P. 0.225 grams
  • Water for Injections q.s.


Pharmacological Effects (Normal Saline Solution Sodium Chloride Injection) 

  • 0.9% Sodium Chloride Injection is considered to be a physiological solution as it is isotonic and isoosmotic.
  • Infusion of large amounts can expands circulating volume by approximating sodium content of the blood.
  • Provides the following electrolytes in each liter of fluid:
    Sodium: 150 mEq
    Chloride: 150 mEq
  • Each ampoule of 25 mL provides 3.75 mEq of sodium and 3.75 mEq of chloride.
  • The pH range is 3.5 - 7.5.


Indications (Normal Saline Solution Sodium Chloride Injection)

  • Used as a diluting agent for I.V. medication
  • Used for reconstitution of various I.V. injections
  • Flushing of I.V. ports and cannula.
  • As nasal drops for relieving congestion in children and adults.
  • Used to dilute various bronchodilator solutions (such as procaterol, salbutamol, etc) for nebulization.
  • Used for cleaning of small wounds
  • Used as irrigation solution for eyes.
  • Compresses (moistened gauze) of normal saline may also be used to reduce discomfort due to inflammation or skin irritation and to soften necrotic tissues.
  • (Data sheet of specific medication should be referred to, before dilution, reconstitution or nebulization).

Sodium Chloride Injection

Dosage and Administration (Normal Saline Solution Sodium Chloride Injection)

0.9% Sodium Chloride Injection should be used in accordance with the age and clinical condition of the patient.


Duration of Action and Excretion (Normal Saline Solution Sodium Chloride Injection) 

When infused, passes out of the blood stream quite rapidly, especially when normal renal function and renal blood flow are present.


Adverse Effects (Normal Saline Solution Sodium Chloride Injection)

If administered in large amounts can cause fluid overload, edema, electrolyte imbalance, hypertension and congestive heart failure.



Contraindications (Normal Saline Solution Sodium Chloride Injection)

Congestive heart failure.


Precautions (Normal Saline Solution Sodium Chloride Injection)

  • The sodium chloride content of 0.9% Sodium Chloride Injection is 0.225 grams/ampoule. Care is therefore required in those cases where salt intake is restricted, such as in hypertensive patients.
  • Infusion of large volumes may cause dilutional acidosis due to the dilution of the bicarbonate concentration in the plasma (as the preparation does not contain bicarbonate).
  • Care is required in conditions where hypokalemia and/or hypocalcemia exists or may arise as the infusion of the product can decrease the concentration of these electrolytes.
  • Caution should be exercised in patients with renal failure and in those with reduced urinary output due to obstructive urinary tract diseases.
  • Continuous infusion of 0.9% Sodium Chloride Injection may cause hypernatremia, unless free water is supplied along with it.



Tonicity and Osmolarity (Normal Saline Solution Sodium Chloride Injection)

Isotonic solution having a tonicity of 150.
Isosmotic solution (308 mOsm/L)


Caloric Value (Normal Saline Solution Sodium Chloride Injection)

Nil


Pharmaceutical Precautions (Normal Saline Solution Sodium Chloride Injection)

Normal Saline is compatible with almost all drugs. Therefore it can usually be mixed and used with other injectable medicines. However data sheet of the medication should be referred to, before admixture.
Store at room temperature. Protect from sunlight.
Do not use if ampoule is leaking, solution is cloudy or contains foreign matter.
Discard unused portion.
Keep all medicines out of the reach of children.
Shelf life is 5 years from the date of manufacturing.


Packaging (Normal Saline Solution Sodium Chloride Injection)

25 mL. in polyolefin, twist-off, plastic ampoules.