Antibiotics classes, indications and contraindications
Antibiotics classes, indications and contraindications

Antibiotics are molecules that kill, or stop the growth of, microorganisms, including both bacteria and fungi.

Antibiotics may be classified by different ways


Classification on the basis of biological effect:
  • According to spectrum:
    • Broad spectrum
    • Narrow spectrum
  • Classification according to the type of action of antibiotic:
    • Bactericidal: To virulent microorganism to omit the problem from the root. 
    • Bacteriostatic: Slow down the growth and give chance to the body immune response to fight the pathogen.
  • Classification according to chemical structures
  • Classification according to mechanism of action.
  • Classification according to antibiotics contraindications.
 

    Antibiotics Classes, Indications and Contraindications (Medicated Drugs List) :


    1. β-Lactam antibiotics classes, indications and contraindications.
      Examples: penicillins (e.g. amoxicillin), cephalosporins, carbapenems, Monobactams, etc.

    2. Tetracyclines antibiotics classes, indications and contraindications.
      example: tetracycline.

    3. Macrolides antibiotics classes, indications and contraindications.
      example: erythromycin.

    4. Aminoglycosides antibiotics classes, indications and contraindications.
      examples: Gentamicin, Tobramycin, Amikacin.

    5. Quinolones antibiotics classes, indications and contraindications.
      example: Ciprofloxacin (a fluoroquinolones).

    6. Cyclic peptides Glycopeptides antibiotics classes, indications and contraindications.
      examples: Vancomycin, Streptogramins, Polymyxins.

    7. Lincosamides antibiotics classes, indications and contraindications.
       example: clindamycin.

    8. Nitroimidazoles antibiotics classes, indications and contraindications.

    9. Chloramphenicol antibiotics classes, indications and contraindications.

    10. Co-Trimoxazol antibiotics classes, indications and contraindications.
      sulfamethoxazole + trimethoprim.

    11. Nitrofurantoin antibiotics classes, indications and contraindications.

    12. Oxazolidinoes antibiotics classes, indications and contraindications.
      example: Linezolid (Zyvox).

    13. Sulfa antibiotics antibiotics classes, indications and contraindications.
      example: sulfisoxazole.
    Antibiotics classes, indications and contraindications


    Basic principals of chemical classification:
    • Compounds of similar structures have similar biological activity.
    • Biological activity is frequently due to a structure moieties as – CO-C = X where X is CH2 or N2 or CooH

    Antibiotics classes, indications and contraindications


    Aminoglycoside contraindications 


    • known allergies, 
    • renal or hepatic disease, 
    • hearing loss

    Aminoglycosides adverse effects 


    • ototoxic 
    • and nephrotoxic


    Aminoglycoside drug-drug interactions 


    • diuretics, 
    • neuromuscular blockers.


    Carbapenem contraindications 


    • known allergy and also beta lactams, 
    • seizure disorder, 
    • meningitis, 
    • and lactation. 
    • dependent on kidney for excretion and hepatotoxic. 

    Carbapenem adverse effects 


    • toxic effects to the GI tract. 
    • may cause pseudomembranous colitis, 
    • clostridium difficile, 
    • N/V. CNS effects include AMS, 
    • seizure, 
    • headache 
    • and dizziness. 

    Cephalosporin contraindications  


    • known allergy to them 
    • and penicillins (cross sensitivity). 

    Cephalosporin adverse effects 


    • N/V, 
    • abd pain, 
    • anorexia. 

    Fluoroquinolones contraindications


    • known allergy, 
    • pregnancy or lactation. 
    • Black box warning: risk of tendinitis and tendon rupture when using these ABX. 

    Penicillin contraindications


    • allergy to penicillin 
    • and cephalosporins 

    Penicillin adverse effects 


    • N/V, 
    • GI upset, 
    • glossitis, 
    • stomatitis, 
    • gastritis, 
    • sore mouth 
    • and furry tongue. 

    Sulfonamides contraindications 


    • allergy to sulfas or any thiazide diuretics due to cross sensitivity, 
    • pregnancy or lactation, 
    • renal & hepatic disease. 

    Tetracyclines contraindications


    • known allergy, 
    • pregnant or lactating, 
    • children < 8 (can cause damage to developing bones and teeth). 

    Tetracyclines adverse effets 


    • N/V, 
    • GI upset, 
    • glossitis and dysphagia, 
    • hepatotoxic, 
    • photo-sensitivity and rash. 

    Antimycobacterial contraindications 


    • known allergy, 
    • renal or hepatic failure. 

    Ketolides contraindications 


    • known allergy, 
    • cannot be used with the statins (lipitor). 
    • Black box warning: cannot be used with myasthenia's gravis due to fatal respiratory failure. 

    Lincosamide contraindications 


    • hepatic or renal failure; 
    • may cause fatal psuedomembranous colitis. 

    Lipoglycopeptide adverse effects 


    • black box warning: serious fetal risk; 
    • may cause C. diff, 
    • Red Man Syndrome, 
    • and is nephrotoxic (may cause foamy urine). 

    Sulfonamide nursing implications 


    • must be taken with 2-3 L of fluid q 24hr, 
    • assess RBC's prior to begining therapy and take oral doses with food. 

    Penicillin nursing implications 


    • do not take PO with acidic fluids. 

    Cephalosporin nursing implications 


    • assess for penicillin allergy, 
    • give PO with food, 
    • may cause disulfiram (Actabuse)-like reaction when taken with ETOH.

    Macrolides nursing implications


    • highly protein-bound and will cause severe interactions with other protein-bound drugs. 

    Tetracyclines nursing implications


    • avoid milk products, 
    • iron preparations, 
    • antacids, 
    • and other dairy products due to chelations and drug binding that may occur. 
    • Avoid sunlight and tanning beds due to photosensitvity.

    3 Comments

    ahmed abdeen said... @ September 15, 2013 at 10:39 PM

    thanks

    PharmaSchool said... @ November 1, 2013 at 10:13 AM

    You are Welcome

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